The purpose of this short study is to further strengthen my understanding of Māori concepts and principles to evaluate how they can be identified in the context of what I observe in my daily practice as an early childhood teacher. Based on this evaluation I hope that I can incorporate an outlook to further develop my bicultural practice.

There is no clear English definition of manaakitanga as my online search found a number of different definitions under this Māori principle. The Māori dictionary defines manaakitanga as 1. (noun) hospitality, kindness, generosity, support - the process of showing respect, generosity and care for others.

I attended a workshop a while ago that was facilitated by Warwick Pudney on 'Boys in ECE and their first year in school'. The speaker suggested that male support is vital for boys in their early years and needs to be well grounded. Boys need that male affirmation.

As an immigrant to a new land, discovering, establishing, and feeling comfortable with an identity is an important aspect of one's own journey. The settling in process can be difficult based on a number of reasons such as social integration and a desire to feel accepted as an individual who is capable of offering a contribution to society. But what about the children of immigrants who are either born here or arrive at a young age and then strive to settle in to an early childhood environment?

I have often observed children from multicultural backgrounds being brought by their parents to introduce them to an early childhood centre. A few of the children aren't native English speakers and often find it challenging to settle in to their new environment.

I am currently about to complete an 'Action Research Project' that I started a while ago in relation to challenging behaviour in the context of boys who are three years of age and over in a preschool environment. I started this project based on a personal interest in this area and attempted to cover my evaluations and reflections to incorporate the criteria and key indicators to establish my professional relationships and values as required by the Registered Teacher Criteria (RTC) for fully registered early childhood teachers practising in New Zealand.